Here is an updated list of all hydroelectric power stations in Nigeria, also some other things you should know about power stations in Nigeria will be carefully reflected on on this page.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydro-power, that is, converting the energy of moving water into electricity.
Talking about hydroelectric power stations, it consists of turbines that rely on a gravity flow of water from the dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity.
With a dam and reservoir, it is a flexible source of electricity, since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down very rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands.
Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.
What Are Hydroelectric Power Plants?
First, Hydroelectric power is an electricity produced from generators driven by turbines that convert the potential energy of falling or fast-flowing water into mechanical energy.
Talking about hydroelectric power plants, it is a renewable energy power plant that generates electricity using a renewable natural resource, water running down waterways as a result of rainfall.
They are usually located in dams that impound rivers, thereby raising the level of the water behind the dam and creating as high a head as is feasible.
Hydro power plant in Nigeria is broken down into categories depending on their size.
The smallest plants, with capacities between 1 KW and 100 KW, are called micro-hydropower plants.
Between 100 KW and 1 MW is a plant described as a mini-hydro-power plant. Small hydropower plants are generally those with capacities between 1 MW and 10 MW, but this upper limit can vary from country to country and in some cases may be as high as 30 MW.
Plants with capacities larger than 10 MW (or up to 30 MW depending on jurisdiction) are classed as large hydropower plants.
Micro: 1 – 100 KW
Mini: 100 KW – 1 MW
Small: 1 MW to 10-30 MW
Large: Above 10-30 MW
Technically, large hydroelectric power plants are the most sophisticated and are generally individually designed for each site using turbines that have also been made specifically for the power plant.
Hydroelectric power plants exploit the energy contained in water as it flows downhill.
The water that feeds rivers and streams comes from rain which is produced as a result of the evaporation of water into the atmosphere under the influence of solar heating.
Hydro power plant in Nigeria is planned, constructed, and operated to meet human needs: electricity generation, irrigated agricultural production, flood control, public and industrial water supply, drinking water supply, and various other purposes.
How Is Power Generated In Nigeria?
Electricity in Nigeria is generated through thermal and hydro power sources.
The main source of electricity generation comes from fossil fuels (thermal) especially gas which accounts for 86% of the capacity in Nigeria with the remainder generated from hydropower sources.
The major operator in the Nigerian electric power station is the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) which was created in 1972 after the merged of the then Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and the Niger Dams Authority by Degree NO. 24 of 27th June, 1972.
In 2005, as a result of the power sector reform process, NEPA was renamed Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN).
The government unbundled PHCN into eleven electricity distribution companies (DisCos), six generating companies (GenCos), and a transmission company (TCN).
This comprises of the privatized GenCos, Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and the generating stations under the National Integrated Power Project (NIPP).
The demand for electricity is shared between residential, industrial, commercial/street lighting in the proportions: 50:30:20. , With 2 to 5% of the capacity of the national grid contributed by private sector – IPP.
All these private producers (NESCO, Shell, AES-Lagos, Bayelsa State gas turbine and Ajaokuta Steel Company) sell power to PHCN for transmission and distribution to consumers, while the other balance of power demand in the country is being supplied by private generating sets.
Also Read: Full list of all steel companies in Nigeria
Nigeria’s Hydro Potential is high and hydropower currently accounts for about 32% of the total installed commercial electric power capacity.
Nigeria has considerable hydro potential sources exemplified by her large rivers, small rivers and stream and the various river basins being developed.
Nigerian rivers distributed all over the country with potential sites for hydropower scheme which can serve the urban, rural and isolated communities.
An estimation of river Kaduna, Benue and Cross river indicated that total capacity of about 4,650 MW is available, while the estimate for the river Mambilla plateau is estimated at 2,330MW.
However, the first large scale hydro power station in Nigeria was built in Kainji on the river Niger with an installed capacity of 760MW and with expansion to 1,150MW in 1968, then followed by Jebba in 1984 and Shiroro in 1990 with installed capacity of 570MW and 600MW respectively.
Nigeria is the largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa but limitations in the power sector constrain growth.
According to Power Africa Nigeria Fact Sheet in October 2019, Nigeria already has the potential to generate around 12,522MW of electric power from existing plants, but mostly, is only able to generate around 4,000MW which is insufficient.
How Many Power Stations Are In Nigeria?
How many hydroelectric power plants do we have in Nigeria?
According to researches, there are three main hydro power plants in Nigeria, and they are listed below:
- Jebba Power Station
- Kainji Power Station
- Shiroro Power Station
List of Power Stations In Nigeria and Their Location
Presently, there are two main types of power plants operating in Nigeria: hydroelectric and thermal or fossil fuel power plants.
The gas-fired plants are located in the south region of the country, while the hydroelectric powered plants are located further in Jebba, Kainji, and Shiroro.
Below is the list of the hydroelectric power stations in Nigeria, their establishment, location, and megawatt generated.
1. KAINJI POWER STATION RESERVOIR
The Kainji Power Station is located in Niger State and was established in 1968.
It has an installed generating capacity of 760 megawatts.
The station generates electricity for all the large cities in Nigeria and is also sold to the neighboring country of Niger.
Kainji Lake measures about 135 kilometers long and about 30 kilometers at its widest point and supports irrigation and a local fishing industry.
An uncoordinated opening of floodgates led to local flooding of about 60 villages in 1999.
2. JEBBA HYDRO POWER STATION RESERVOIR
The Jebba Power Station is one of the power stations in Nigeria which has its source from the Niger River.
It was launched in 1984 and has a power generating capacity of 540 megawatts.
The power station is located 64 miles from the Kainji Dam between Niger and Kwara State.
The Jebba Dam stores and safely releases water to generate hydroelectric power provide flood protection and originally support navigation.
3. SHIRORO POWER STATION RESERVOIR
The Shiroro Power Station is a hydro power plant of the Kaduna River in Shiroro, Niger State, Nigeria.
It began operation in 1990 and has a power generating capacity of 600 megawatts consisiting of 4 units.
4. EGBIN POWER PLANT
This hydro power plant is in the list of transmission stations in Nigeria launched in 1986 and situated in north-east of Lagos, on low land in Ijede and bounded by the Lagoon to the south, Agura/Gberigbe to the north and situated in Ijede LGA, Ikorodu.
It is the largest power generating station in Nigeria with a generating capacity of 1320MW consisting of 6 units.
This power plant functions on gas heated steam turbine.
5. SAPELE POWER PLANT
This is one of the power stations in Nigeria located in Sapele, Delta State.
Sapele power plant was launched in 1981 with a generating capacity of 1020MW.
It has the function to work through simple cycle and gas heated stream turbines.
6. TRANSCORP – UGHELLI POWER PLANT
Transcorp – Ughelli Power Station is also one of the power stations in Nigeria located in Ughelli of Delta State.
Ughelli power generator has four phases: the first was established in 1966, the second – 1975, the third – 1978 and the fourth – 1990.
This power plant has 972MW of capacity and also works through a simple cycle gas heated turbine.
7. AFAM I-IV & V POWER PLANT
These stations are other power stations in Nigeria which operates on simple cycle gas turbine.
These power stations located in Afam in River State were both completed between 1982 and 2002 with an installed capacity of 977MW.
8. GEREGU I POWER STATION
This power station is situated near Ajaokuta in Kogi State.
It was completed in 2007 with a generating capacity of 414MW.
It operates on open cycle gas turbine.
9. OMOTOSHO I POWER STATION
Omotosho I Power Station is one of the power stations in Nigeria located at Omotosho in Ondo State and was established in 2006.
It generates 335 megawatts of capacity.
This station functions on gas turbine with simple cycle.
10. PAPALANTO (OLORUNSOGO) POWER STATION
Papalanto Power Station is also in the list of transmission stations in Nigeria situated in Ogun State in the year 2007.
It has a totaled installed generating capacity of 335MW.
It also operates on simple cycle gas turbine.
11. KWALE OKPAI POWER STATION
This power station is one of the power stations in Nigeria that was completed in 2005 as Independent Power Project (IPP).
Kwale Okpai Power Station is owned by Agip Oil Company in Delta State with an installed generating capacity of 480MW.
Okpai power station operates on combined cycle gas turbine.
12. KADUNA POWER PLANT
Kaduna Power Plant is also one of the power stations in Nigeria with a generating capacity of 215 megawatts.
It is located in Kaduna State, though its completion is still in progress.
Other power stations in Nigeria include:
13. AFAM VI POWER STATION
Location: Rivers State
14. IBOM POWER STATION
Location: Akwa Ibom State
15. AES BARGE (IPP)
Location: Lagos State
16. OMOKU POWER PLANT (IPP)
Location: Rivers State
17. TRANS-AMADI POWER PLANT (IPP)
Location: Rivers State
18. RIVERS POWER PLANT (IPP)
Location: Rivers State
19. ABA POWER GENERATOR (IPP)
Location: Abia State
20. GEREGU II POWER PLANT (NIPP)
Location: Kogi State
21. SAPELE POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Delta State
22. OLORUNSOGO II POWER PLANT (NIPP)
Location: Ogun State
23. EGBEMA POWER GENERATOR (NIPP)
Location: Imo State
24. CALABAR POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Cross River State
25. IHOVBOR POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Benin State
26. ALAOJI POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Abia State
27. OMOTOSHO II POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Ondo State
28. OMOKU II POWER STATION (NIPP)
Location: Rivers State
29. GBARAIN POWER STATION
Location: Bayelsa State
Here is the updated list of the hydroelectric power stations in Nigeria, though there are some that are not mentioned above because they are still under construction or regarded to be a proposed project.
Summary Notes on Power Stations In Nigeria
Currently, electricity generated in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the demand needs of households and business, as a result, Nigeria has a low capital consumption of electricity.
Therefore, increased availability and quality of electricity will have immediate and direct effects on the quality of community and living conditions in homes, affecting health, nutrition, education, security, mobility, communications and recreation.
Improved power supply will also have important effects in industry and businesses by improving working conditions and productivity and encouraging industrial expansion.
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