Starting a business with little or no knowledge will not always give you good result, pig farming in Nigeria is one business that’s super lucrative, and must be handled professionally.
Yea… On oasdom.com, we have discussed many business ideas and today, we want to discuss commercial pig farming in Nigeria.
Just check out our site, then you will discover some secrets that aren’t taught in school – how to create money and be financially independent.
Today, I will be sharing with you how to start profitable pig farming in Nigeria.
Piggery Farming For beginners
It is advisable that beginners should start on a small scale. Though, pig farming is a taboo in some places e.g Northern Nigeria, because of their religious belief against pigs, so you may not consider marketing your pigs in northern Nigeria.
“Start small” may be the best advice especially when you don’t know anything about pig farming in Nigeria.
As a beginner:
1. Make research and know more about pig. Go for seminars and also read every material you can find that will increase your knowledge on piggery business.
2. You also need to be honest with yourself, do you have the time, money and energy?
3. Are all other factors that will make this business grow big and profitable on your side or against you?
4. You also need to have a business plan that will guide you through the whole process in the pig farming business.
What Is Pig Farming?
Pig farming also known as piggery, is the act of rearing piglets or weaners till maturity for commercial purpose.
Pigs are among the most versatile animals humans have ever domesticated. Yea, you can keep them as pets, and you can also eat them or use them to make leather and lots more.
Though, we think of them as hungry, dirty and messy. If your mum tells you that you are as dirty as a pig or “You are sweating like a pig!” Sincerely, how do you feel? Very very angry?
To me, the statement is not always true, though; the phrase is a common insult.
In case you don’t know, Pigs actually do not have sweat glands, which is why they tend to roll in the mud in nature to keep cool.
Most of our perceptions about pigs aren’t entirely accurate. In this article, I will take you to the world of pig keeping and you will know more about commercial pig farming in Nigeria
The words pig, hog and swine are all generic terms without regard to gender, size or breed. A male pig is called a boar.
A female pig is called a gilt if she hasn’t had piglets yet and a sow if she has. Pigs originated from Eurasian Wild boars.
What Are the Advantages and Benefits of Pig Farming?
Pig farmers in West African countries and all around the world keep pig for some exceptional benefits that these creatures give.
Just like fish farming business is advantageous, the advantages of pig farming are stated below:
High Level Breeders
Pigs usually breed twice a year and produce about 12 piglets in a litter. Unlike any other livestock, their weight may double in the first week of life, if they obtain sufficient milk from the sow.
Source of Food
Pig’s meat contains protein which is high in energy, attractive, nutritious, tasty and tender.
Source of Income
Pigs are reared mainly for meat, pigskin, bristle, and manure. Therefore, apart from just seeing them as mainly meat producers, their skin and bristle are useful. They can be sold in exchange for money.
Source of Employment Opportunity
Pig farming in Nigeria, provide jobs opportunity for the unemployed members of the labor force. Pig business owners need staffs to maintain their pig farms.
Cheaper Cost of Feeding
Since pigs are omnivorous, they can be fed with a wide variety of products. You can feed them with roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste etc.
Pigs are less susceptible to diseases, unlike poultry farming. They adapt easily to most environments (hot or cold). This makes it possible for pigs to be raised on both a small and large scale.
Faeces of pigs is used as a manure to maintain soil fertility
How Lucrative Is Pig Farming In Nigeria?
Did you know that very few Nigerians are making it big in this business, and here you are very fortunate enough to have this information on pig farming in Nigeria; don’t misuse this opportunity.
For the entrepreneur who is interested in livestock farming, a pig farming venture can prove to be very lucrative. Pigs are highly prolific, giving birth to an average of 10 piglets per farrow.
Typically a sow farrows at least 2 times in a year. So in a year, a pig can give birth to about 25 piglets. Interestingly, the gestation period is not more than 115 days (almost 4 months).
So, you can go for small scale production, and start with few pigs. More so, weather condition and geographical location of Nigeria is very suitable for pig farming.
The primary reason why you’ll make money from this business is due to the high demand of pork meat in Nigeria and the meat sells fast in the market.
As a pig farmer, you can sell a fully grown pig for as high as N60, 000 depending on the weight.
Now, imagine if you can rear at least 50 pigs to maturity, you’ll be making about N3Million from sales in 1 YEAR!
How to Start A Pig Farming Project – Complete Guide to Commercial Pig Farming In Nigeria
Unlike guinea pig farming, pig farming is a little bit of capital intensive. This part of the article is where you get the step by step tips and practical tips to start and succeed in a pig farming business.
1. Secure a Farmland
For a starter, a plot of land may just be okay for small scale, depending on how you plan to feed your pigs.
Look for land in a rural area, where you can get it cheaper. A plot of land in a rural area will be within #150,000 – #200,000. Just make sure that the farmland is far from residential areas because of their noise and odour.
Still, some people have chosen to use their backyard, provided they’re ready to keep the pig houses super clean at all times to avoid big time air pollution.
2. Build Standard Pens
It is advisable to build big pen, if you don’t want your pigs to injure themselves. A good and spacious pen is also important to keep the pigs healthy and free from diseases and contamination.
Proper drainage is needed too to avoid water becoming stagnant in your pen which could attract insects and other harmful pets to harm your pigs.
You can also build swimming pool for your pigs where they can play and cool themselves (optional though), since pigs do not have sweat glands and have no way of cooling themselves when they get hot.
3. Buy Healthy Piglets
To ensure healthy farm, you need to make sure the piglets are healthy. Buy from trusted source and make sure the ones you are buying have history of vaccination.
It is advisable, to start with small number and increase gradually, and then your risk will be minimal. Starting a mini pig farm at your backyard might mean starting with let’s say 3 female pigs and 1 male.
4. Get a Veterinary Doctor
You need the services of vet doctors for regular checkup and vaccination as well as feeding and nutrition advice.
If you are starting on a smaller scale, you may need lesser number of worker 1 – 2 workers who will be assisting in the cleaning of the pigs and the pens, as well as feeding the pigs.
Just like human beings, pigs eat a wide variety of foods, anything we can eat they also can eat.
Like human being as well, they need balanced diet such as fibre, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals to thrive.
So, a nice feeding formula that encompasses all nutrients is a must if you want your pigs to grow healthier and faster.
There is a good market of pig meat (pork). You can sell your products in your local market or international market. Pig meat is tasty, nutritious and has a great global popularity.
Pig farming in Nigeria is a great business opportunity for unemployed educated people, women and for anyone who wants to raise pigs commercially.
Necessary Pig Farming Equipment In Nigeria
When you want to start pig farming in Nigeria, you need to also consider the equipment you will need. Some have found DIY solution to some of these equipment and you can too.
1. Pig Board
Pig board is a large flat barricade that is placed behind pigs when moving through a race to encourage them forward and prevent them turning around.
It is always a good idea to have a pig board with you, as you work with your pigs. Even just going into their area to clean up or feed them, as this gives you a moment of safety.
2. Hog Snare
When it’s time to wean the piglets or if a mature pig becomes ill or injured, a hog snare can be helpful. You need patience and practice because pigs move much faster.
After you get the pig where you want it, then keep it there, while you attend to its wounds or administer medication
A restraining snare is used in addition to the pig board. Work quickly, and do not keep the pig restrained in the snare for long.
3. Mineral Feeder
All animals need minerals. Pigs can obtain some of the minerals they need by rooting in the dirt. To be sure your pigs are getting the right level of all minerals, feeding a mineral supplement is a good idea.
Some farmers will mix the minerals into the grain and feed as one ration. When you use pasture as the food source, a separate mineral supplement can be offered.
In this case, using a mineral feeder will cut down on waste. Pigs can eat what they need while the feeder protects the supplement from wet weather, tipping over, or being rooted into the ground.
You can place the mineral feeders on the ground, or mount on the wall.
4. Heat Lamps for Piglets or Sick Pig
Heat lamps can help the piglets survive in cold weather. They are always a safety measure when raising piglets.
Just make sure you hang it securely where the pigs can’t knock it down. In this case, I would recommend purchasing the best equipment you can afford.
Hang the heat source securely where the animals can’t knock it down. Check it often to make sure it is secure and working.
5. Hoof Trimmers
Hoof trimmers, is the fastest and safest way to trim off overgrown hoof or an injury causing a problem, just make sure you disinfect hoof trimmers, before using to prevent transmitting any bacteria between animals.
6. Farrowing crate
A farrowing crate provides a safe and comfortable environment for the sows to childbirth and breeding. It is also important to improve the survival rate of piglets.
At the same time, the farrowing crate has a great influence on the lactation and energy recovery of the sows.
Cost Analysis of Pig Farming In Nigeria and Profits Analysis
If you want to purchase pigs, it is advisable to buy them where they are cheap.
Firstly, let’s consider small scale pig farming in Nigeria
Assuming each piglet in Nigeria is within #5,000 to #9,000 in the market, and the pregnant mothers also sells for #30,000 to #60,000 in the market. These prices largely depend on the weight of the pigs.
A small scale farmer can start a piggery with 5 weaners (4 females and 1 male). Since, a sow farrows at least 2 times in a year. In a year, a pig can give birth to about 25 piglets.
So at the end of each year, you will have over 100 pigs in your herd. Definitely, you know what that means; you are in money, I mean cool cash.
Let’s calculate the expenses:
Average cost per piglet #5,000 ×5 = #25,000
Transportation = 10,000
Loading and offloading = #2,000
Others expenses= 3,000
Total = #40,000
Now, you can sell a mature pig at the end of the year at the rate of at least #35,000 depending on the weight.
You will have Return on Investment of over #3 million naira in a year depending on how much you have spent on feeding and health care.
Now, let’s consider large scale pig farming in Nigeria
Assuming you already own a land, with your initial capital of 200, 000, you can purchase 25 weaners.
Let’s calculate the expenses:
Average cost per pig #5,000 × 25 weaners = #125,000
Transportation = 30,000
Loading and off loading = #5,000
Others expenses = 10,000
Total = #170,000
So in a year, a pig gives birth to 25 piglets. Now, if you want to sell the pigs at the end of year at the rate of #35,000 each, depending on their weight you will have Return On Investment of over #10 million depending on how much you have spent on feeding and health care.
Risks and Disadvantages of Pig Farming In Nigeria
Every business opportunity has got risk(s) attached and so is it for pig business.
Pigs are Not Readily Everywhere In Nigeria
Pig farming is a taboo in some places i.e. Northern Nigeria, because of their religious belief against pigs, so you must consider this before starting pig farming in Nigeria.
Pest and Diseases
Just like in any type of agriculture anything can happen; disease outbreaks, wrong selection of the initial herd, the mortality of young animals, etc.
Sows may be unable to produce the required minimum of 6 piglets, sows eating their newborns, bad practices by farmers or their workers, etc.
Lack of experience, high cost of water and electricity, poor quality pig feed may turn out to be huge risks of the business.
The Largest Pig Farm In Nigeria
Did you know that the biggest pig farm in Nigeria is actually in Ogun state? I am very sure that if you visit the farm your mentality about pigs will change forever.
It is located N77C Oke-Aro Farm Estate, Oke Aro Ifo Ogun state. Oke Aro Pig farm has been in existence for over two decades with over 2,000 farmers both small scale and medium size farmers.
Almost 6 full trailer loads of pigs are being transported out of the farm on a daily basis. Yes exactly.. 6 trailer load.
Just visit the farm and I’m very sure that you will start to take pig business seriously.
Pig Farming In Nigeria (Summary)
Now, you know what it takes to succeed in the pig farming in Nigeria. Pig farming is one sure way of becoming a millionaire in Nigeria.
If you enjoyed reading this article you can start raising capital to start your own pig farm.
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