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20 Mineral Resources In Nigeria and Their Location

Want to know more about the mineral resources in Nigeria and their locations?

Nigeria is one of the richest countries in the world when it comes to the amount of natural resources within its geographical area.

Not quite long, I gave a quick roundup about the top 10 richest states in Nigeria, so check that out as well.

Nigeria is the heartbeat of Africa, a country full of potential, rich in human and natural resources, many of which are not found anywhere else in the world.

The importance of natural resources in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. One of the major sources of income for the country is the availability of minerals resources like petroleum and others.

list of solid mineral deposits in Nigeria

Demand for minerals is increasing worldwide, as the population increases and the consumption of individual people also increases.

Undoubtedly, Nigeria is the largest and blessed country in Africa, with the population of over 180 million people and abundant mineral resources.

According to the administrative division, there are 36 states in Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory.

These mineral resources are therefore distributed across the states. Now sit, relax if possible grab a cup of coffee and check if your state contribute positively to our great country economy.

What Is Mineral Resources

Mineral resources are essential natural occurring materials or commodity found on or in the earth in such small amounts which are mined for their potential uses or their intrinsic values.

Mineral resources in Nigeria are extremely available because there are many ways of classifying them. The following types of mineral resources in Nigeria can be distinguished:

  • Combustible minerals are used primarily as fuel (coal, oil, and gas)
  • Metallic resources include minerals like Gold, Silver, Tin, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Nickel, Chromium, and Aluminium
  • Non-metallic mineral resources comprise other minerals that are not metal ores (limestone, dolomite, gypsum, clay, crushed stone, sand, salts, etc.)

Now, the question is where can we find these mineral resources in Nigeria? They can be found across all six geopolitical regions in Nigeria.

List of 20 Mineral Resources In Nigeria and Their Locations In Each State

Here is the list of the most frequent mineral resources in Nigeria, and the states where they usually can be found:

1. Gold

Gold - what is mineral resources
Gold, isolated on white.

Gold is one of the most important mineral resources in Nigeria.

All operations of gold from production to exploration, mining, and refining was mainly significant in the year 1913 with its highest production.

Unfortunately, few years after the promising mineral exploration and production, the production of gold in Nigeria declined due to the Second World War in 1939.

Thus war resulted in abandonment of mines by the colonial companies that were at then the head of the Nigerian gold production.

States Where Gold Can be Found In Nigeria:

Gold is a natural resource deposit mainly found in the Northern part of Nigeria, West Africa which is prominently located in:

  • Iperindo in Osun State and
  • Other areas near Maru, Tsohon Birnin Gwari-Kwaga,Gurmana, Anka, Malele, Bin Yauri and Okolom-Dogondaji.
  • Some states with smaller deposits include; Abia, Abuja, Bauchi, Edo, Cross River, Niger, Sokoto, Osun, Oyo State, Kebbi, Kaduna, Kogi, and Zamfara.

2. Oil and Natural Gas

oil and gas mineral deposit in nigeria

Petroleum is also one of the most important mineral resources in Nigeria. Oil was discovered in Nigeria in 1956 at Oloibiri in Niger Delta after half a century of exploration.

Basically, 2.5 million barrels of crude oil is produced daily, while the gas reserves are 180 trillion cubic meters.

It is no news that Nigeria makes money through oil and gas exploitation. Oil and Gas is a major industry that is supporting the global economy. Still, many have said that oil is the boom that became our doom.

There are major oil and gas companies operating in the country that makes this possible. Shell, Chevron, Total Plc, Oando, and their regulator, NNPC are just a few of them exploring our oil in the Niger Delta.

Would you like to know the list of top 50 oil and gas companies in Nigeria? I think you should check that out for more info.

There are states known as the oil producing states that are situated in the Niger Delta Region. These states are Delta, Akwa Ibom, Edo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Imo, Ondo, and Abia.

3. Bitumen

Bitumen - natural resources in Nigeria

Another mineral resources in Nigeria which is durable is bitumen. Bitumen is described as ‘mankind’s oldest engineering material’.

This fact is supported by some evidence., it is proven that some thousand years back, bitumen was being used by the early Babylonians, as a building material because of its properties as a cement and waterproofing agent.

The Nigerian bitumen reserves have about 42 billion tons of bitumen. Bitumen is usually used as an asphalt binder because of its durability.

States in which Bitumen can be found in Nigeria include:

  • Lagos
  • Edo
  • Ondo and
  • Ogun.

4. Iron ore

Iron ore mineral    

Some steel companies of the country can take various iron products for processing.

The country owns more than 3 billion metric tons of iron ore deposits in Kogi, Enugu and Niger States and the Federal Capital Territory.

Iron ore can be found in:

  • Benue
  • Anambra
  • Kogi State
  • Kwara
  • Delta State.

5. Coal

Coal resources

Coal was first discovered in Nigeria in 1909 at the Udi Ridge in Enugu by a British mines engineer, Albert Kitson.

By 1916, the Ogbete Mine was in full operation and in that year alone, it yielded 24,511 metric tons of coal.

Today, petroleum is our main source of energy today, coal was one of the earliest sources of non-renewable energy used in powering engines.

According to the research, Nigerian coal holds a high place among the best coals in the world, due to containing a low amount of sulfur and ash.

Nigeria has about three billion tons of coal, which are preserved in seventeen fields, and there are about 600 tons of coal reserve.

Coal had been discovered in such states as:

  • Ondo
  • Enugu
  • Zamfara
  • Benue
  • Nasarawa, and
  • Plateau.

6. Tin

Tin metal is found in everyday life and is essential to an industrial society. Tin is used in the manufacture of cans and containers, electrical equipment, and chemicals.

  • Locations: Jos, Bauchi.

7. Talc

Talc mining in Nigeria

Talc is another mineral resources in Nigeria. Talc deposits in Nigeria are estimated to be about 40 million tonnes. It is found in some states in Nigeria like:

  • Osun state
  • Kogi state
  • Oyo state
  • Niger state and so many others.

8. Salt

salt natural resources

Rock salt is one of the most demanded mineral resources in Nigeria. The rock salt is used in the production of caustic soda, table salt, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and many others.

It should be known that about 1.5 million tonnes of rock salt are being deposited in Nigeria.

States in which salt can be found include:

  • Akwa Ibom
  • Abia
  • Ebonyi
  • Cross River.

9. Gem Stones

Gem solid minerals

Gemstones are one of the important natural resources. Though, many do not believe that Nigeria has gemstone, but in case you don’t know, the gemstones in Nigeria are regarded as one of the best in the world.

Gemstones found and exploited heavily in states like:

  • Plateau
  • Kaduna and
  • Bauchi.

10. Gypsum

Gypnosium - natural resources in nigeria

The importance of this mineral resources in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized.

Gypsum is used in the production of cement, plaster of Paris (POP), as well as the classroom chalk among others. About 1 billion tonnes of gypsum deposits are spread across some states in Nigeria

These states includes:

  • Adamawa
  • Anambra
  • Bauchi
  • Bayelsa
  • Benue
  • Borno
  • Delta
  • Edo
  • Gombe
  • Imo
  • Kogi
  • Ondo and
  • Sokoto.

More Pictures of Natural Resources In Nigeria and their Location

Our country depend on the vast wealth of resources waiting just underneath the surface of the planet.

Therefore, mineral resources has become an integral part of the economy for almost every developing nation. Learn more about 7 great importance of mineral resources.

 11. Bentonite and barite

Branite resources

Bentonite and Barite are the main constituents of the mud used in the drilling of all types of oil wells.

Currently, over 700 million tonnes of Bentonite is spread across Adamawa, Borno and Plateau state.

On the other hand, over 7.5 million tonnes of barite have been identified in Taraba and Bauchi States.

12. Bismuth


Bismuth is a brittle metal which is used in a number of very different applications. The majority is consumed in bismuth alloys and in pharmaceuticals and chemicals.

The remainder is used in ceramics, paints, catalysts and a variety of minor applications. Bismuth are found in Kaduna state

13. Lead and Zinc

Lead and zinc

An estimated 10 million tonnes of lead/ zinc channel are spread over eight states of Nigeria: Abia, Abuja, Akwa Ibom, Bauchi, Ebonyi, Gombe, Nasarrawa, and Plateau and probably more states.

14. Silver

silver deposits in Nigeria

Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that has deposits of silver. Just like some other mineral resources, silver is sparsely deposited in the country and can be found in the northern part of Nigeria.

Locations: Taraba, Kano, and. Ebonyi state

15. Kaolin

Kaolin deposits in Nigeria

Kaolin can be found in the Nigerian kaolinitic clay reserves. It has been put at three billion tonnes and is present in such states as Delta, Adamawa, Borno, Katsina, Ekiti, Ondo, Kaduna, Kogi, Ogun, Sokoto, and Plateau.

16. Limestone

Lime stone

Limestone is a multipurpose natural resource in Nigeria and it is used in building sculptures and monuments.

It is also used in the manufacture of paint, tooth paste detergents, soaps, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, ceramics, asbestos, industrial adhesives, paper conversion, livestock concentrate and chemical fillers in rubber and plastic

Limestone is found in states like Borno, Sokoto, Cross River and Benue,

17. Columbite


Columbite is another untapped mineral resources in Nigeria. Some of the uses of columbite ore include alloy of steel, to form weldable high speed steel, for radio transmitting valves, and heat sensitive detective devices.

It is also a substitute for tantalum, which is often used in the electronics and telecommunications industry, making columbite a valuable resource in these industries.

Columbite is found in states like: Plateau, Kano, Kaduna, Bauchi, Kogi and Nassarawa states.

18. Fluorspar


Its area of application includes ceramics and glass industry, it can be used in gold industry as a means of fake gems agent and filler as well.

It is also used in cosmetics, putty, plastic, grout, paper, and other manufactured products. States in Nigeria where Fluorspar can be found include Abuja, Kaduna, Kano, Kebbi, Kogi, Ogun, Zamfara

19. Copper Ore

copper ore minerals in Nigeria

Copper ore is also one of the metallic natural resources that are richly deposited in Nigeria. Locations include: Abia, Bauchi, Kano, Gombe, Plateau, Nasarawa, and Zamfara States.

20. Glass Sand

Glass sand mineral resources in nigeria

Glass Sand is used in the production of various glass products: which include sheet glasses for windows bottles, mirrors, optical instruments, chemical apparatus, electrical insulation and condensers, pipe, doors, crucibles, automobile and aircraft bodies, filters and building blocks.

They are also used for making abrasives and for gravel packing in the petroleum industries.

The major silica sand deposits in the country can be found in Ughella–Delta State, Igbokoda, Ondo State, Baure, Katsina State, Badagry, Lagos State, and along the sandy shore line of the Atlantic, some inland deposit are also reported at Shebu, Plateau State and Ilaro, Ogun State.

What more?

Top 5 Nigerian States With Highest Mineral Resources

Here is the list of some states with the highest number of mineral resources in Nigeria. Kudos to you if your state is among in the list

  • Mineral Resources Found in Plateau state

Minerals found in Plateau state are 23 in number, which makes the state with the highest number of natural resources.

The following solid minerals can be found in commercial quantities in Plateau state – Barite, Bauxite, Betonite, Bismuth, Cassiterite, Clay, Coal, Emeral, Fluoride, Gemstone, Granite, Iron-ore, Kaolin, Lead/Zinc, Marble, Molybdenite, Phrochlore, Salt, Tantalite/Columbite, Tin and wolfram.

  • Mineral Resources Found in Kaduna state

This is one of the few states that has the highest number of natural resources in Nigeria, with a total of 20 solid minerals recorded.

These are Amethyst, Aqua Marine, Asbestos, Clay, Flosper, Gemstone, Gold, Graphite, Kaolin, Hyanite, Mica, Rock Crystal, Ruby, Sapphire, Sihnite, Superntinite, Tentalime, Topaz and Tourmaline.

  • Mineral Resources Found in Benue state

Located in the middle belt, Benue state has eleven natural resources at its disposal and they are: Barite, Clay, Coal, Gemstone, Gypsium, Iron-Ore, Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Marble and salt.

  • Mineral Resources Found in Edo State

There are thirteen recorded solid mineral deposits in Edostate and they are Bitumen, Clay, Dolomite, Phosphate, Glass-sand, Gold, Gypsium, Iron-ore, Lignite, Limestone, Marble and Oil/Gas.

  • Mineral Resources Found in Ondo state

Minerals found in Ondo state are thirteen in number and they are Bitumen, Clay, Coal, Dimension Stones, Feldspar, Gemstone, Glass-Sand, Granite, Gypsium, Kaolin, Limestone and Oil/Gas.

Mineral Resources In Nigeria Maps

Map of Nigeria showing solid mineral resources


  • Bitumen: Edo, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo
  • Gold: Ebonyi, Edo, Ilesha, Kaduna, Oyo
  • Salt: Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River, Ebonyi
  • Tin: Jos, Bauchi
  • Coal: Enugu, Ondo
  • Iron Ore: Anambra, Benue, Delta, Kogi, and Kwara state
  • Lead and Zinc: Ogoja, Kano, Benue, and Ebonyi

10 Interesting Facts About Natural Resources

Human wealth basically comes from agriculture, manufacturing, and mineral resources. Did you realize how vital and integrated the mineral resources is in our everyday lives?

For instance,

Did you know that:  

  1. Every American uses an average of 40,000 pounds of new minerals each year?
  2. A newborn baby will need during its lifetime the following:

800 pounds of lead, 750 pounds of zinc, 1500 pounds of aluminum, 32,700 pounds of iron, 26,550 pounds of clay, 28,213 pounds of salt, 1,238,101 pounds of stone, sand, gravel, and cement?

  1. Brewers in England started drying their Malts with heat generated by coal?
  2. The first metals to be unearthed were gold and copper?
  3. One of the mineral resources that have the highest demand in Nigeria is rock salt. Rock salt is a combination made of table salt, caustic soda, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and various other materials. There is currently 1.5 million tons of rock salt preserved in Nigeria?
  4. It is believed that around 80% of the world’s gold has yet to be discovered and is still buried beneath the earth’s surface?
  5. Petroleum is used in more than 6,000 daily items .Far more than simply fueling our vehicles and heating our homes, petroleum is used in plastic, crayons, DVDs, and more?.
  6. The bentonite and barite are primary substitutes of the mud, which can be used for oil wells drilling.
  7. Have you heard of precious stones in Nigeria? Believe it or not, there are a lot of gemstones in the country nowadays, and Nigeria can be proud of them, as they are considered to be among the best in the world?
  8. In ancient times, an ounce of salt was traded for an ounce of gold.
  9. The richest states in Nigeria based on their mineral resources include: Akwa Ibom, Lagos state, Bayelsa state, Rivers state, Imo state.

Summary Notes on the List of 20 Mineral Resources In Nigeria

That’s it for the list of 20 mineral resources in Nigeria. How do you feel knowing that your state is on this list?

Nigeria is blessed with abundant mineral resources, and the mineral industry remains the main source of Nigeria’s foreign exchange and provides more than 90% of the country’s export value.

Did you find this post informative? Please, give it a like and share and don’t forget to drop your comments.

Adeola Oluwatayo
Adeola is a contributing writer at Oasdom.com. She's a graduate of the Prestigious Obafemi Awolowo University OAU. She loves finding information and sharing her knowledge with others.

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